Document Type : Original Article(s)


1 Doctoral program of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Brawijaya/Saiful Anwar Hospital, Malang,Indonesia

2 Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Brawijaya,Malang. Indonesia

3 Nutrition Science Program, Medical Faculty, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia

4 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia



BackgroundType 1 diabetes (T1D) carries a significant risk of atherosclerosis as the main driver for cardiovascular events. Atherosclerosis is initiated by the activation of the endothelium by various risk factors through the inflammation process. Anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β1 may inhibit the development of atherosclerosis.Material and methodsIn a cross-sectional study, a total of 40 patients aged 14.5±3.16 years old with T1D and 40 healthy control group aged 14.7±0.99 years old were involved. Common carotid artery IMT (cIMT) was measured by real-time M-echocardiography mode (Affinity 50G Philips) and Flow Mediated Dilatation (FMD), required by using high-resolution ultrasonography and Doppler flow characteristics. The TGF-β1 level was measured by indirect ELISA at Saiful Anwar Hospital Laboratory. ResultsThere are no differences of age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), duration diabetes, renal function, nutritional status from T1D and healthy group (p>0,05). A significant difference measurement of cIMT between T1D group and healthy group (0.567 ± 0.87 mm vs. 0.387 ± 0.57 mm, p = 0.000), FMD (7.17 ± 3.98 mm vs. 11.22 ± 5,48 mm, p= 0.000), and level of TGF-β1 cytokine (39.83±13.51 vs. 73,67±15,34 pg/ml, p = 0.000). A significantly negative correlation between TGF-β1 and cIMT (p = 0.000;  r = -0.685) and significantly positive correlation between  TGF-β1  and FMD (p= 0.000; r=+0.55) was found. ConclusionAtherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease and accelerated by diabetes. The inflammation process is more prominent in T1D patients. T1D patients show a decreased level of TGF-β1, increased measurement of cIMT (>0.5 mm), and a decreased measurement of FMD.