Background: The effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs after either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been studied separately. Few studies have compared the effects of similar CR programs between PCI and CABG. This study aimed to compare the effects of CR in patients recruited following either PCI or CABG on coronary heart disease risk factors, psychological variables, and functional capacity in patients.
Methods: For this retrospective study, the documents of the CR program registry of the Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute were reviewed from 2008 to 2021. Patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing PCI or CABG were enrolled in an 8-week exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program. Demographics, smoking status, clinical data, echocardiographic parameters, laboratory data, Functional capacity, and psychological status were assessed.
Results: Patients with CABG (n=557) were more likely to be referred to CR than patients with PCI (n=440). All variables changed significantly after the CR program in comparison to their baseline value in both PCI and CABG groups. However, low density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels, peak systolic blood pressure, and resting and peak diastolic blood pressure did not change in any of the groups, and fasting blood sugar(p=0.01) and triglyceride (TG) (p=0.01) levels significantly decreased only in the PCI group. Between-group comparisons indicated that after adjustment, no significant difference was observed between PCI and CABG groups except for TG, which was significantly reduced in PCI (p=0.01).
Conclusions: The CR program was equally effective in patients with either PCI or CABG.