Document Type : Original Article


1 Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

2 University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta



Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the association between whole- and refined grain intake and risk of stroke among Iranian population.

Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Alzahra University Hospital, Isfahan, Iran in 2008. Cases (n=195) were stroke patients who were hospitalized in neurology ward and controls (n=195) were patients who were hospitalized in other wards of in this center. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess usual dietary intakes of study participants during the preceding year. Whole- and refined grains were defined according to the American Association of Cereal Chemists International definition; foods with at least 8 g per 30 g of their weight were considered as whole grains.

Results: Total intake of whole- (27.8±4.3 vs. 29.4±3.6 g/d, P= 0.77) and refined-grains (264±11 vs. 296±13 g/d, P= 0.07) were not significantly different between cases and controls. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals in the second tertile of refined grain intake had a two-fold higher odds of stroke (OR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.08-3.71), compared to those in the first tertile. In addition, no significant relationships were observed between consumption of whole grains and risk of stroke, before or after adjustment for confounding variables. No significant trend was found between tertiles of refined or whole grain intake and risk of stroke.

Conclusion: We did not find a statistically significant association between whole- and refined-grain intake and risk of stroke. More prospective studies about the relationship between both whole and refined grains and stroke are needed.