Document Type : Original Article(s)


1 Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia

2 Indonesia University, Jawa Barat, Indonesia


BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress caused by various components in cigarette smoke can induce endothelial dysfunction. Black cumin (Nigella sativa) has an oxidative stress inhibition capability by increasing antioxidant enzyme production and decreasing lipid peroxidation.
METHODS: This is an in vivo study with a post-test only design using Wistar rats as subjects. Rats were randomly assigned into five groups: negative control (NC) group without any treatment, positive control (PC) group exposed to cigarette smoke only, and treatment groups (T1, T2, and T3) which received exposure of cigarette smoke and administration of black cumin extract with doses of 0.3 g/kg BW/day (T1), 0.6 g/Kg BW/day (T2), and 1.2 g/kg BW/day (T3). After four weeks, samples were sacrificed with the aortas taken to measure superoxide dismutase (SOD)
activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level.
RESULTS: A significant reduction in SOD activity (p=0.022) was found between the NC and PC groups but not in MDA level (p=0.394). SOD activity increased significantly in T2 when compared to PC (p=0.007). MDA levels significantly increased at T1 (p=0.002), T2 (p=0.005), and T3 (p=0.006) when compared to PC.
CONCLUSION: Black cumin ethanolic extract increased SOD activity in Wistar rats exposed to cigarette smoke. However, no reduce of MDA level was observed.