Document Type : Original Article(s)
- Majdedin Ghalavand 1
- Hadi Esmaeili-Gouvarchin-Ghaleh 2
- Majid Mirzaei-Nodooshan 2
- Soheil Vazifedost 3
- Samira Mohammadi-Yeganeh 4
1 PhD student, Student Research Committee, Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Applied Virology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Applied Virology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4 Associate Professor, Medical Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering Research Center AND Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
and its progression, including free radicals, hypertension, diabetes, genetic changes, hypercholesterolemia, and even some microorganisms such as herpes viruses and chlamydia. Therefore, compounds that can be effective in any of the above cases may be considered as a useful therapeutic agent in the process of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Pistacia atlantica gum hydro-alcoholic extract on macrophage phagocytosis ability and development of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rats.
METHODS: The statistical population of the present study consisted of 25 rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups (one control group under standard diet, 4 treatment groups under high-fat diet). After consumption of high-fat food for 45 days, the treatment groups orally received 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of Pistacia atlantica gum hydro-alcoholic extract for 30 days. Then, peritoneal macrophages were isolated and blood samples were collected to measure the level of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride (TG). P ˂ 0.05 was considered significant in all evaluations.
RESULTS: The level of cholesterol (503.66 ± 17.15), TG (436.66 ± 16.80), LDL-C (343.66 ± 11.59), HDL-C (54.33 ± 7.02), and NBT (0.64 ± 0.02) decreased in the treatment groups. Besides, exactly in a concentration-dependent manner, plant extract significantly reduced the level of respiratory potential level in macrophages.
CONCLUSION: Hydro-alcoholic extract of Pistacia atlantica gum could effectively decrease hypercholesterolemia and increase phagocytic ability of macrophages. Therefore, it can be suggested for more investigation as a blockage of atherosclerosis.
- Hosseini S, Nili-Ahmadabadi A, Nachvak SM, Dastan D, Moradi S, Abdollahzad H, et al. Antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative properties of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2020; 13: 1231-6.
- Omidi H, Omidi H, Naghdi Badi H. The effect of Pistacia atlantica nut powder on liver phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and serum lipid profile in rat. J Med Plants 2008; 7(26): 70-8. [In Persian].
- Sarir H, Nemati F, Saghebjoo M, Moudi M. The effect of pistacia atlantica extract and aerobic training on the levels of triiodothyronine, thyroxine and lipid profile in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. J Kerman Univ Med Sci 2018; 25(6): 509-18. [In Persian].
- Jamshidi S, Hejazi N, Golmakani MT, Tanideh N. Wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica mutica) oil improve metabolic syndrome features in rats with high fructose ingestion. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2018; 21(12): 1255-61.
- Behmanesh MA, Poormoosavi SM, Pareidar Y, Ghorbanzadeh B, Mahmoodi-Kouhi A, Najafzadehvarzi H. Pistacia atlantica's effect on ovary damage and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. JBRA Assist Reprod 2021; 25(1): 28-33.
- Ben AZ, Yousfi M, Viaene J, Dejaegher B, Demeyer K, Heyden YV. Four Pistacia atlantica subspecies (atlantica, cabulica, kurdica and mutica): A review of their botany, ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol 2021; 265: 113329.
- Gholami M, Ghasemi-Niri SF, Maqbool F, Baeeri M, Memariani Z, Pousti I, et al. Experimental and pathalogical study of Pistacia atlantica, butyrate, Lactobacillus casei and their combination on rat ulcerative colitis model. Pathol Res Pract 2016; 212(6): 500-8.
- Arami S, Mojaddadi MA, Pourabbas R, Chitsaz MT, Delazar A, Mobayen H. The effect of Pistacia atlantica Var. mutica mouthwash on dental plaque bacteria and subgingival microorganisms: A randomized and controlled triple-blind study. Drug Res (Stuttg) 2015; 65(9): 463-7.
- Rezaie M, Farhoosh R, Pham N, Quinn RJ, Iranshahi M. Dereplication of antioxidant compounds in Bene (Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica) hull using a multiplex approach of HPLC-DAD, LC-MS and (1)H NMR techniques. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2016; 117: 352-62.
- Minaiyan M, Karimi F, Ghannadi A. Anti-inflammatory effect of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica volatile oil and gum on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rat. Res J Pharmacogn 2015; 2(2): 1-12.
- Tanideh N, Masoumi S, Hosseinzadeh M, Safarpour AR, Erjaee H, Koohi-Hosseinabadi O, et al. Healing effect of pistacia atlantica fruit oil extract in acetic Acid-induced colitis in rats. Iran J Med Sci 2014; 39(6): 522-8.
- Mahjoub F, Akhavan RK, Yousefi M, Mohebbi M, Salari R. Pistacia atlantica Desf. A review of its traditional uses, phytochemicals and pharmacology. J Med Life 2018; 11(3): 180-6.
- Shahouzehi B, Shabani M, Shahrokhi N, Sadeghiyan S, Masoumi Y. Effects of Pistacia atlantica resin oil on the level of VEGF, hydroxyproline, antioxidant and wound healing activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Ukr Biochem J 2018; 90: 34-41.
- Satterthwaite D, McGranahan G, Tacoli C. Urbanization and its implications for food and farming. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2010; 365(1554): 2809-20.
- Libby P, Ridker PM, Maseri A. Inflammation and atherosclerosis. Circulation 2002; 105(9): 1135-43.
- Saigusa R, Winkels H, Ley K. T cell subsets and functions in atherosclerosis. Nat Rev Cardiol 2020; 17(7): 387-401.
- Prakash S, Marudhupandi T, Balamurugan J, Ajith Kumar TT. Influence of lipid-enriched diets on the reproductive performance of marine ornamental ‘hinge‐beak’ shrimp Rhynchocinetes durbanensis (Caridea: Rhynchocinetidae). Aquac Res 2021; 52(4): 1369-81.
- Lee K, Kim A, Hong KB, Suh HJ, Jo K. Preparation and Characterization of a polar milk lipid-enriched component from whey powder. Food Sci Anim Resour 2020; 40(2): 209-20.
- Gheibi S, Hashemi SR, Karimipour M, Motlagh BM, Ghaleh HEG. Synergistic effects of hydro extract of jujube fruit in combination with Mesalazine (orally) and Asacol (intra-colonic) administration in ameliorating animal model of ulcerative colitis. Journal of Coloproctology 2018; 38(4): 275-82.
- Motlagh BM, Ahangaran NA, Froushani SM. Calcitriol modulates the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on macrophage functions. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2015; 18(7): 672-6.
- Pouwer MG, Pieterman EJ, Verschuren L, Caspers MPM, Kluft C, Garcia RA, et al. The BCR-ABL1 inhibitors imatinib and ponatinib decrease plasma cholesterol and atherosclerosis, and nilotinib and ponatinib activate coagulation in a translational mouse model. Front Cardiovasc Med 2018; 5: 55.
- Gidding SS, Allen NB. Cholesterol and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: A lifelong problem. J Am Heart Assoc 2019; 8(11): e012924.
- Shah K, Shah P. Effect of Anthocyanin supplementations on lipid profile and inflammatory markers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Cholesterol 2018; 2018: 8450793.
- Abtahi Froushani SM, Mohammadi V, Tehrani A A, Esmaeili Gouvarchin Ghaleh H, Mansori Motlagh B. Therapeutic effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Cynodon dactylon in hypercholesteremic rabbits. Journal of Advanced Biomedical Sciences 2018; 8 (3): 929-37. [In Persian].