Document Type : Original Article(s)
1 Department of Nutrition, Electronic Health and Statistics Surveillance Research Center, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
BACKGROUND: Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is considered a strong antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties. Moreover, a number of previous studies have shown its lipid-lowering properties. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate the effects of ALA on lipid profile in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), which can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature mortality.
METHODS: A total 46 patients with MetS were randomly divided into two groups. They received either 600 mg ALA (n = 23) or 600 mg placebo (n = 23) for 12 weeks. The body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting blood sugar (FBS), hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), and blood pressure (BP) were assessed at baseline of the study. Physical activity level and dietary intake were assessed at baseline and end of the study. Serum lipid profile including triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and total cholesterol (TC) were measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention.
RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar in the ALA and placebo groups (P > 0.05). However, there were statistically significant differences in plasma levels of TG (-36.82 ± 42.48 versus 6.15 ± 25.04 mg/dl, P = 0.001) and TC (-8.91 ± 20.65 versus 10.84 ± 22.97 mg/dl, P = 0.01) after 12 weeks between the ALA group and the placebo group. Yet, there were no statistically significant differences in plasma levels of HDL-C and LDL-C after 12 weeks between the ALA group and the placebo group.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that daily supplementation of 600 mg ALA for 12 weeks may improve the lipid profile in patients with MetS.
- Wang HH, Lee DK, Liu M, Portincasa P, Wang DQ. Novel insights into the pathogenesis and management of the metabolic syndrome. Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2020; 23(3): 189-230.
- Zafar U, Khaliq S, Ahmad HU, Manzoor S, Lone KP. Metabolic syndrome: An update on diagnostic criteria, pathogenesis, and genetic links. Hormones (Athens) 2018; 17(3): 299-313.
- Kaur J. A comprehensive review on metabolic syndrome. Cardiol Res Pract 2014; 2014: 943162.
- Tang K, Zhang Q, Peng NC, Zhang M, Xu SJ, Li H, et al. Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome and its components in Chinese patients with a range of thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations. J Int Med Res 2020; 48(11): 300060520966878.
- Kim NH, Han KH, Choi J, Lee J, Kim SG. Use of fenofibrate on cardiovascular outcomes in statin users with metabolic syndrome: Propensity matched cohort study. BMJ 2019; 366: l5125.
- Watanabe M, Yokotsuka M, Yamaoka K, Adachi M, Nemoto A, Tango T. Effects of a lifestyle modification programme to reduce the number of risk factors for metabolic syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. Public Health Nutr 2017; 20(1): 142-53.
- Morales-Palomo F, Ramirez-Jimenez M, Ortega JF, Mora-Rodriguez R. Effectiveness of aerobic exercise programs for health promotion in metabolic syndrome. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2019; 51(9): 1876-83.
- Khoshnaw DM, Ghadge AA. Yoga as a complementary therapy for metabolic syndrome: A narrative review. J Integr Med 2021; 19(1): 6-12.
- Kim HN, Kim SH, Eun YM, Song SW. Effects of zinc, magnesium, and chromium supplementation on cardiometabolic risk in adults with metabolic syndrome: A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2018; 48: 166-71.
- Cicero AFG, Colletti A, Bajraktari G, Descamps O, Djuric DM, Ezhov M, et al. Lipid-lowering nutraceuticals in clinical practice: Position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel. Nutr Rev 2017; 75(9): 731-67.
- Du G, Qiao Y, Zhuo Z, Zhou J, Li X, Liu Z, et al. Lipoic acid rejuvenates aged intestinal stem cells by preventing age-associated endosome reduction. EMBO Rep 2020; 21(8): e49583.
- Serhiyenko V, Serhiyenko L, Suslik G, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid: Mechanisms of action and beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. MOJ Public Health 2018; 7(4): 174-8.
- Timmers S, de Vogel-van den Bosch J, Towler MC, Schaart G, Moonen-Kornips E, Mensink RP, et al. Prevention of high-fat diet-induced muscular lipid accumulation in rats by alpha lipoic acid is not mediated by AMPK activation. J Lipid Res 2010; 51(2): 352-9.
- Miao Y, Ren J, Jiang L, Liu J, Jiang B, Zhang X. alpha-Lipoic acid attenuates obesity-associated hippocampal neuroinflammation and increases the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet. Int J Mol Med 2013; 32(5): 1179-86.
- Carrier B, Wen S, Zigouras S, Browne RW, Li Z, Patel MS, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid reduces LDL-particle number and PCSK9 concentrations in high-fat fed obese Zucker rats. PLoS One 2014; 9(3): e90863.
- Huerta AE, Navas-Carretero S, Prieto-Hontoria PL, Martinez JA, Moreno-Aliaga MJ. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in overweight and obese women during weight loss. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2015; 23(2): 313-21.
- The International Physical Activity Questionnaires (IPAQ) Group. Guidelines for Data Processing and Analysis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) - Short and Long Forms [Online]. [cited 2005]; Available from: URL: http://www.ipaq.ki.se/scoring.pdf
- Mohammadi V, Khorvash F, Feizi A, Askari Gh. Does alpha-lipoic acid comsumption improve lipid profile in patients with stroke? A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2017; 19(8): E58765.
- Elbadawy AM, Abd Elmoniem RO, Elsayed AM. Alpha lipoic acid and diabetes mellitus: potential effects on peripheral neuropathy and different metabolic parameters. Alexandria J Med 2021; 57(1): 113-20.
- Rochette L, Ghibu S, Muresan A, Vergely C. Alpha-lipoic acid: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential in diabetes. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2015; 93(12): 1021-7.
- Zhang Y, Han P, Wu N, He B, Lu Y, Li S, et al. Amelioration of lipid abnormalities by alpha-lipoic acid through antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2011; 19(8): 1647-53.
- de Oliveira AM, Rondo PH, Luzia LA, D'Abronzo FH, Illison VK. The effects of lipoic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementation on the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2011; 92(2): 253-60.
- Chen WL, Kang CH, Wang SG, Lee HM. alpha-Lipoic acid regulates lipid metabolism through induction of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Diabetologia 2012; 55(6): 1824-35.
- Ansar H, Mazloom Z, Kazemi F, Hejazi N. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on blood glucose, insulin resistance and glutathione peroxidase of type 2 diabetic patients. Saudi Med J 2011; 32(6): 584-8.
- Tengholm A, Gylfe E. cAMP signalling in insulin and glucagon secretion. Diabetes Obes Metab 2017; 19(Suppl 1): 42-53.
- Ichikawa T, Liang J, Kitajima S, Koike T, Wang X, Sun H, et al. Macrophage-derived lipoprotein lipase increases aortic atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed Tg rabbits. Atherosclerosis 2005; 179(1): 87-95.
- Vidovic B, Milovanovic S, Stefanovic A, Kotur-Stevuljevic J, Takic M, Debeljak-Martacic J, et al. Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid Supplementation on Plasma Adiponectin Levels and Some Metabolic Risk Factors in Patients with Schizophrenia. J Med Food 2017; 20(1): 79-85.
- Castro MC, Massa ML, Schinella G, Gagliardino JJ, Francini F. Lipoic acid prevents liver metabolic changes induced by administration of a fructose-rich diet. Biochim Biophys Acta 2013; 1830(1): 2226-32.
- Yang RL, Li W, Shi YH, Le GW. Lipoic acid prevents high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress: A microarray analysis. Nutrition 2008; 24(6): 582-8.
- Salwa K, Mohamed MA, Ahmed MM, El-Arabi GH. a-Lipoic acid ameliorates the oxidative status and serum iron in diabetic patients. J Pharm Biomed Sci 2011; 1(5) 97-103.