Document Type : Review Article
Associate Professor, Department of Nursing, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a worldwide epidemic disease. It is more common and more severe in elderly persons. Various studies however have estimated 41.9 million men and 27.8 million women to have prehypertension. Diagnosis and early treatment of prehypertension are of utmost importance. Although hypertension is usually divided into 2 general categories of essential (primary) and secondary hypertension, the initial treatment for hypertension often depends on its stage which is determined by systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Lifestyle modification is the first step in treating stage one hypertension. Pharmaceutical treatments including diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, calcium blockers, beta blockers, and angiotensin receptor blockers will be recommended if lifestyle modification fails to control blood pressure.
METHODS: The PubMed database was searched by a number of keywords including hypertension, pharmaceutical treatment, and non-pharmaceutical treatment. The results were limited by determining a date range of 2008-11.
RESULTS: High blood pressure causes major health problems for many people around the world. It should be controlled because of its high mortality and morbidity. However, in order to select an appropriate treatment modality, it is initially important to diagnose the kinds and stages of hypertension. Pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical treatments can then be employed to control this serious disease.
CONCLUSION: Treating hypertension depends on the kinds and stages of this disease. Several tips should be considered when selecting a method of treatment.