Hypertension is a significant health problem worldwide and affects more than 20% of the adult population. This disorder has an important role in morbidity and mortality of heart and kidney disease patients. It is believed that essential hypertension is a multifactorial and polygenic disease; resulting from an interplay between environmental and genetic factors. In this paper, we will review studies that have inspected new genome screen and introduced a new viewpoint on candidate genes of essential hypertension. We discuss on polymorphism of candidate genes which related in the pathogenesis of hypertension and take from experimental models or knowledge of the pathophysiology. Study on genetic factors of hypertension may be developing new treatment for these patients.