BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most common non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which in 2017 accounted for 1.65% of all deaths, and 0.66% of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). About 25% of the adult population are hypertensive in Iran. Prevalence of HTN is significantly higher in those with a family history of HTN. This study compares the impact of paternal and maternal history of HTN on the risk of HTN development.METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 2107 adults of 18-84 years old residing in Isfahan, Iran, from August 2015 to March 2016. Blood pressure (BP) measurement standards were taken from World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. We measured BP in the right arm for three times at 1-minute intervals and considered the mean of second and third measurements. Other data were collected by questionnaire.RESULTS: Prevalence of HTN was higher in participants whose mother or both parents were hypertensive (P < 0.001). Diastolic BP (DBP) was affected by every side of parental history (P < 0.001), while systolic BP(SBP) was affected when both parents were hypertensive (P < 0.001). As a result, maternal family history increased the odds of HTN by 1.9 times [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-2.65] and both maternal and paternal history increased it by 3.1 times (95% CI: 2.01-4.78) compared to those with no family history. However, paternal history was not significantly related to the odds of HTN.CONCLUSION: Our study results demonstrate that maternal history of HTN doubles the odds of HTN. Besides, if both parents are hypertensive, it will be tripled.