Document Type : Original Article(s)


1 Associate Professor, Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran


BACKGROUND: The assessment of exercise self-efficacy in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is necessary to conduct tailored interventions. The aim of the current study was to validate the Iranian version of the Cardiac Exercise Self-efficacy Scale (CESE) for patients with CVD.METHODS: To develop the Iranian version of the CESE scale, a forward and back translation procedure was followed. Data were collected from 260 patients with CVD who were admitted to Imam Ali Cardiovascular Hospital, Iran, using convenience sampling. Psychometric properties of the scale including validity (face and content validity, discriminant, concurrent, convergent, divergent, and construct validity) and reliability (internal consistency, and test-retest reliability) were assessed. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis.RESULTS: The questionnaire had a good face and content validity and reliability, with Cronbach's alpha of 0.87 and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.42. The questionnaire discriminated well between subgroups according to their medical conditions and the “health transition” item in the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). There was a significant correlation between CESE and the physical components of the SF-36 (P < 0.001). In addition, a strong to moderate significant correlation was found between the CESE and the Exercise Self-efficacy Scale (ESES) (r = 0.77; P < 0.01) and between CESE and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) total (r = -0.45; P < 0.001). The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) identified a four-factor structure model, explaining 71.02% of the observed variance.CONCLUSION: The Persian version of the CESE is a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of CVD patients’ exercise self-efficacy level in performing regular exercise behaviors.


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