Document Type : Original Article(s)


1 Assistant Professor, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

3 Fertility and Infertility Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

4 Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, Iran


BACKGROUND: High lipid accumulation in hepatocyte and blood vessels can lead to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and heart diseases, respectively. These disorders are the main reasons of mortality in various countries. In this experiment, we evaluated the effect of leaf extracts of Anethum graveolens (AG), also known as Dill, and AG tablet on expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and liver lipid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.METHODS: In this experimental study, 36 male golden hamsters were divided into 6 groups: 1) standard diet + 0.5% cholic acid + 2% cholesterol [high cholesterol diet (HCD)], 2) HCD + 100 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of Dill, 3) HCD + 200 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of Dill, 4) HCD + 100 mg/kg Dill tablet, 5) HCD + 200 mg/kg Dill tablet, 6) chow. At the end of study (30th day), hamsters were anesthetized and blood sample and liver tissue were collected. Biochemical factors and antioxidant parameters were determined. LDLR messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) level was measured using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Histopathological change of liver was determined using light microscope.RESULTS: Compared to HCD group, blood lipids (P < 0.0010) and liver enzymes (P < 0.0010) markedly reduced in AG-treated groups. The expression of LDLR did not change significantly in animals which received low dose of hydroalcoholic extract or AG tablet, but it increased in animals receiving high dose of extract or tablet (P < 0.0100). Liver antioxidant significantly increased by AG (P < 0.0010). Liver histopathological changes were normalized by AG.CONCLUSION: AG can significantly increase LDLR gene expression in HCD animals. This study showed that both AG extract and AG tablet had potential antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects in hamsters.


  1. Corey KE, Chalasani N. Management of dyslipidemia as a cardiovascular risk factor in individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014; 12(7): 1077-84.
  2. Nikkila K, Aberg F, Isoniemi H. Transmission of LDLR mutation from donor through liver transplantation resulting in hypercholesterolemia in the recipient. Am J Transplant 2014; 14(12):
  3. -902.
  4. Sinzinger H, Wolfram R, Peskar BA. Muscular side effects of statins. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2002; 40(2): 163-71.
  5. Shahsavari G, Raoufi A, Toolabi A, Hosseninejadmir N, Ahmadvand H, Safariebrahimsarabie M. The effect of atorvastatin treatment duration on oxidative stress markers and lipid profile in patients with coronary artery diseases: A case series study. ARYA Atheroscler 2017; 13(6): 282-7.
  6. Ahmadvand H, Ghasemi-Dehnoo M. Antiatherogenic, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic effects of coenzyme Q10 in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats. ARYA Atheroscler 2014; 10(4): 192-8.
  7. Mirzaei F, Khazaei M, Komaki A, Amiri I, Jalili C. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) by normalizing NLRP3 inflammasome showed potential neuroprotective effects in Amyloid-beta induced toxicity and high-fat diet fed rat. Food Chem Toxicol 2018; 118: 68-83.
  8. Jana S, Shekhawat GS. Anethum graveolens: An Indian traditional medicinal herb and spice. Pharmacogn Rev 2010; 4(8): 179-84.
  9. Goodarzi MT, Khodadadi I, Tavilani H, Abbasi Oshaghi E. The role of Anethum graveolens L. (Dill) in the Management of Diabetes. J Trop Med 2016; 2016: 1098916.
  10. Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacological importance of Anethum graveolensA review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014; 6(4): 11-3.
  11. Abbasi Oshaghi E, Khodadadi I, Mirzaei F, Khazaei M, Tavilani H, Goodarzi MT. methanolic extract of dill leaves inhibits AGEs formation and shows potential hepatoprotective effects in CCl4 Induced liver toxicity in rat. J Pharm (Cairo) 2017; 2017: 6081374.
  12. Abbasi Oshaghi E, Tavilani H, Khodadadi I, Goodarzi MT. Dill tablet: A potential antioxidant and anti-diabetic medicine. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2015; 5(9): 720-7.
  13. Gholampour F, Behzadi Ghiasabadi F, Owji SM, Vatanparast J. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney. Avicenna J Phytomed 2017; 7(6): 542-53.
  14. Arash A, Mohammad MZ, Jamal MS, Mohammad TA, Azam A. Effects of the aqueous extract of anethum graveolens leaves on seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole in mice. Malays J Med Sci 2013; 20(5): 23-30.
  15. Panda S. The effect of Anethum graveolens L. (dill) on corticosteroid induced diabetes mellitus: involvement of thyroid hormones. Phytother Res 2008; 22(12): 1695-7.
  16. Askari M, Hosseini S. Effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of Anethum graveolens L. with swimming training on lipid profile of diabetic rats. Horizon Med Sci 2016; 22(4): 345-51. [In Persian].
  17. Desai SN, Patel D. Acute and sub-chronic toxicological evaluation of Anethum graveolens l. seed extract. J global Biosci 2016; 5(6): 4213-20.
  18. Mohammadi A, Mirzaei F, Jamshidi M, Yari R, Pak S, Sorkhani A. The in vivo biochemical and oxidative changes by ethanol and opium consumption in syrian hamsters. International Journal of Biology Archives 2013; 5(4): 14.
  19. Mohammadi A, Abbasi Oshaghi E, Noori Sorkhani A, Oubari F, Hosseini Kia R, Rezaei A. Effect of opium on lipid profile and expression of liver x receptor alpha (LXRa) in Normolipidemic Mouse. Food Nutr Sci 2012; 3(2): 249-54.
  20. Mohammadi A, Vafaei SA, Nabi Moradi M, Ahmadi M, Pourjafar M, Abbasi Oshaghi E. Combination of ezetimibe and garlic reduces serum lipids and intestinal niemann-pick c1-like 1 expression more effectively in hypercholesterolemic mice. Avicenna J Med Biochem 2015; 3(1): e23205.
  21. Wouters K, van Gorp PJ, Bieghs V, Gijbels MJ, Duimel H, Lutjohann D, et al. Dietary cholesterol, rather than liver steatosis, leads to hepatic inflammation in hyperlipidemic mouse models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology 2008; 48(2): 474-86.
  22. Balkan J, Dogru-Abbasoglu S, Aykac-Toker G, Uysal M. The effect of a high cholesterol diet on lipids and oxidative stress in plasma, liver and aorta of rabbits and rats. Nutrition Research 2004; 24(3): 229-34.
  23. Abbasi Oshaghi E, Khodadadi I, Saidijam M, Yadegarazari R, Shabab N, Tavilani H, et al. Lipid Lowering Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Anethum graveolens L. and Dill Tablet in High Cholesterol Fed Hamsters. Cholesterol 2015; 2015: 958560.
  24. Abbasi Oshaghi E, Khodadadi I, Tavilani H, Goodarzi MT. Effect of dill tablet (Anethum graveolens L) on antioxidant status and biochemical factors on
  25. carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage on rat. Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2016; 6(2): 111-4.
  26. Abbasi Oshaghi E, Khodadadi I, Tavilani H, Goodarzi MT. Aqueous extract of Anethum Graveolens L. has potential antioxidant and antiglycation effects. Iran J Med Sci 2016; 41(4): 328-33.
  27. Yazdanpanah K. Effects of dill juice on serum low density lipoprotein, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein in patients with hyperlipidemia. Iran J Med Sci 2016; 41(4): 328-33.
  28. Setorki M, SHahinfar N, Ansari R, Forouzandeh Z., Asgharzadeh S, Rafieyan M. Comparison between the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of dill and statins on lipid profile. J Kerman Univ Med Sci 2013; 20(2): 158-68.
  29. Souri E, Amin G, Farsam H, Barazandeh Tehrani M. Screening of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of 24 medicinal plant extracts. DARU 2008; 16(2): 83-7.
  30. Mobasseri M, Ostadrahimi A, Khaje Bishak Y, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Mahluji S. Anethum graveolens supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and lipid abnormality in type 2 diabetic patients. Pharm Sci 2014; 20(2): 40-5.
  31. Berge KE, Tian H, Graf GA, Yu L, Grishin NV, Schultz J, et al. Accumulation of dietary cholesterol in sitosterolemia caused by mutations in adjacent ABC transporters. Science 2000; 290(5497): 1771-5.
  32. Arai Y, Watanabe S, Kimira M, Shimoi K, Mochizuki R, Kinae N. Dietary intakes of flavonols, flavones and isoflavones by Japanese women and the inverse correlation between quercetin intake and plasma LDL cholesterol concentration. J Nutr 2000; 130(9): 2243-50.
  33. Sung JH, Lee SJ, Park KH, Moon TW. Isoflavones inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase in vitro. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2004; 68(2): 428-32.
  34. Abbasi Oshaghi E, Goodarzi MT, Higgins V, Adeli K. Role of resveratrol in the management of insulin resistance and related conditions: Mechanism of action. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2017; 54(4): 267-93.
  35. Knekt P, Kumpulainen J, Jarvinen R, Rissanen H, Heliovaara M, Reunanen A, et al. Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76(3): 560-8.