Document Type : Original Article(s)
1 B.Sc., Physiotherapist, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.
2 MD, General physician, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.
3 B.Sc., Biologist, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.
4 B.Sc., Nutritionist, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.
AbstractINTRODUCTION: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is increasing inindustrialized communities. Dyslipidemia is a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor whichis related to diet, especially consumption of hard margarine and hydrogenated fat.The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors differs in communities.We studied the prevalence of consumption of different types of oil and fat in areas ofCentral Iran.METHODS: The subjects were selected using randomized cluster sampling and dividedinto rural and urban groups. A 48-item standard food frequency questionnaire was filledout for every subject by a trained interviewer, who also obtained demographic data. Datawere analyzed with SPSS. Different educational groups and the two sexes in urban andrural areas were compared using chi square test and paired t-test. P values below 0.05were considered as significant.RESULTS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 12600 adultsubjects aged above 19 years in the cities of Isfahan, Najafabad, and Arak. Consumptionof olive oil and other types of oil in the urban community of Isfahan was higher than inthe rural community. Consumption of animal oil and fat was higher in the ruralcommunity of Isfahan. In subjects with high school education and higher, consumptionof different types of oil was not found to be different between urban and ruralcommunities, or between men and women. In Arak, no difference was found betweenrural and urban subjects with high school education and higher, in respect ofconsumption of different types of oil. Among subjects with lower education, however,consumption of olive oil and other types of oil was higher in urban areas andconsumption of animal oil and fat was higher in rural men. In Najafabad, no differencewas found between different educational groups in respect of the different types of oilconsumed; only consumption of animal oil in rural subjects educated below high schooldiploma was higher than in cities.CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with high school education and higher, nodifference was found between rural and urban populations in respect of the types of oilconsumed. However, among individuals with low education, consumption of animal oiland fat as well as hard margarine was higher in the rural population, while the urbanpopulation consumed higher amounts of oil and olive oil. The pattern of oil and fatconsumption in men and women was different in the cities of Najafabad and Arak, butalmost similar in Isfahan. Geographical location and education affect the pattern of oiland fat consumption. Unhealthy lifestyle habits are more prevalent in members of therural population with low education.Key Words: Fat, oil, urban population, rural population, education.