Abstract INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress are thought to be important mechanisms in pathogenesis of disease in hemodialysis patients. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of oral vitamin E supplementation on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: The study group consisted of 26 uremic patients (10 women and 16 men), 16-68 years of age undergoing maintenance hemodialysis three times a week (12 hours/week), lasting a range of 6-108 months, at Vali-e-Asre Hospital in Birjand (Iran). Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), lipid peroxidation, cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein levels were determined before and after oral vitamin E supplementation, 400 mg/d for 90 days. RESULTS: Vitamin E supplementation caused a significant decrease in ThioBarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) level as a marker for lipid peroxidation (2.97±0.52 vs. 2.55±0.44, P<0.001) and a significant increase in plasma TAC (1252±348 vs. 1398±372, P<0.01). Although there was a decrease in the level of lipid profile, there were no statistically significant differences in the means of cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein before and after vitamin E supplementation among patients. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that oral vitamin E supplementation might be able to modify oxidative stress by an increase in TAC, and a decrease in lipid peroxidation; that could be considered as a preventive strategy in hemodialysis patients Keywords: Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, vitamin E, hemodialysis.