ARYA Atheroscler9620140210Journal Index889889ENIndexJournal. to download the index of this issue
ARYA Atheroscler9620131115Effect of conjugated linoleic acid and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in atherosclerotic patients311318ENMohammad HassanEftekhariFereshteAliasghariDepartment of Nutrition, School of Health and Nutrition, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. f.aliasghary@yahoo.comMohammad AliBabaei-BeigiJafarHasanzadeh201302042013101520131007 BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and disability in Iranian people. Inflammation and oxidative processes are key components of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and omega-3 fatty acid (ω-3 fatty acids) supplementation on inflammation markers and oxidative stress in atherosclerotic patients. METHODS: This study was a two-month clinical, randomized trial. 90 volunteers who referred to Emam Reza Heart Clinic of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran) from February to March 2011 and had the inclusion criteria of this study were selected. Participants were classified into 3 groups receiving 3 g/d CLA, 1920 mg/d ω-3, or placebo for 2 months. C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured before and after supplementation. RESULTS: The hs-CRP level decreased significantly in both the omega-3 and CLA group (P < 0.05). IL-6 reduced significantly in the ω-3 group, but the reduction of IL-6 levels in the CLA group was not significant. GPx increased in the CLA and omega-3 groups (P < 0.05). MDA level decreased significantly in both omega-3 and CLA groups (P < 0.05). Comparison between the groups indicates a significant change in CRP levels in the ω-3 group relative to the control group. However, other indices did not cause any significant change in the ω-3 and CLA groups in comparison to the control group. CONCLUSION: Diet supplementation with CLA and ω-3 can have a beneficial effect on some indices of inflammatory and oxidative stress.   Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Conjugated Linoleic Acids 
ARYA Atheroscler9620131115Relationship between dietary approaches to stop hypertension score and presence or absence of coronary heart diseases in patients referring to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran319325ENZeinabMokhtariJavadNasrollahzadehRezaMiriBahramRashidkhaniSaeedHosseiniAssistant Professor, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. saeedhmdphd@hotmail.com201304112013101520131014BACKGROUND: The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern reduces blood pressure. However, there is little information about the relationship between DASH and coronary heart diseases. This study aimed to assess the relationship between a DASH-style diet adherence score and coronary heart diseases (CHD) in patients referring for coronary angiography. METHODS: In this study, 201 adults (102 males, 99 females) within the age range of 40-80 years who referred for coronary angiography were selected. Diet was evaluated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. DASH score was calculated based on 8 food components (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and legumes, low fat dairy, red/processed meats, soft drinks/sweets, and sodium). The relationship between DASH score and CHD was assessed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Mean of DASH score was 23.99 ± 4.41. Individuals in the highest quartile of DASH score were less likely to have CHD [odds ratio (OR) = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.86]. However, after adjustment for gender or smoking, there was little evidence that coronary heart disease was associated with DASH diet score. There was a significant negative correlation between DASH score and diastolic blood pressure (P ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, having a diet similar to DASH plan was not independently related to CHD in this study. This might indicate that having a healthy dietary pattern, such as DASH pattern, is highly related to gender (dietary pattern is healthier in women than men) or smoking habit (non-smokers have healthier dietary pattern compared to smokers).   Keywords: Coronary Heart Disease, Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension, Blood Pressure 
ARYA Atheroscler9620131115Clinical investigation of the acute effects of pomegranate juice on blood pressure and endothelial function in hypertensive individuals326331ENSedighehAsgaryProfessor, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. sasgary@yahoo.comMahtabKeshvariAmirhosseinSahebkarMohamadHashemiMahmoudRafieian-Kopaei201304112013072020130720BACKGROUND:Pomegranate juice (PJ) is rich in bioactive phytochemicals with antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective functions. The present trial investigated the acute effects of PJ consumption on blood pressure and markers of endothelial function. METHODS:In this single-arm study, thirteen hypertensive men aged 39–68 years were recruited. Included subjects were assigned to natural PJ (150 ml/day) following a 12 hour fast. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and flow-mediated dilation (FMD), along with serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured at baseline and 4-6 hours after PJ consumption. RESULTS:Comparison of pre- vs. post-trial values revealed a significant reduction in both SBP (7%; P = 0.013) and DBP (6%; P < 0.010). However, changes in FMD (20%) as well as circulating levels of CRP, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, and IL-6 did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.172). CONCLUSION:PJ has promising acute hypotensive properties. Consumption of PJ could be considered in the context of both dietary and pharmacological interventions for hypertension.   Keywords: Punica Granatum L., Cardiovascular Disease, Hypertension, Inflammation, Endothelium-Dependent Dilation 
ARYA Atheroscler9620131115Modulation of coronary artery disease risk factors by menopausal status: A population based study among Iranian women (KERCADRStudy)332336ENGholamrezaYousefzadehFatamehMahdavi-JafariMostafaShokoohiLecturer, Research Center for Modeling in Health, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. shokouhi.mostafa@gmail.comHamidNajafipourAli-AkbarHaghdoostVidaModares-Nejad2013042020130720BACKGROUND: Menopause is now viewed as a risk factor for coronary heart diseases (CHD). There is a scarcity of evidence concerning the effects of menopause on coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of menopausal status on CAD risk factors. METHODS: The present study was designed as part of the Kerman coronary artery disease risk study (KERCADRS) that was a population-based study among a cohort of 6000 individuals aged 15 to 75 years in Kerman, Iran. Only women aged 35 to 60 years were enrolled. Participants were categorized according to reproductive age into the three groups of premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal states. RESULTS: The premenopausal status was accompanied with lower levels of triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and blood pressure compared with the other two groups (P < 0.001). In addition, women in the postmenopausal group had higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in comparison with the other two groups (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, total cholesterol and LDL levels were significantly higher in the postmenopausal group compared with the other two groups (P < 0.05). In addition, total cholesterol and LDL levels, and systolic blood pressure were statistically different according to menopausal status after adjustment for both age and body mass index (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The increased risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal period can be explained by elevated levels of lipid profile and increased systolic blood pressure, regardless of effects of advanced age or other anthropometric parameters.   Keywords: CAD Risk Factors, Women, Premenopause, Perimenopause, Postmenopause
ARYA Atheroscler9620131115Impact of the components of Mediterranean nutrition regimen on long-term prognosis of diabetic patients with coronary artery disease337342ENSoheilaMosharrafGholamrezaSharifzadehPariyaDarvishzadeh-BoroujeniHojjatRouhi-BoroujeniPhD Candidate, Medical Plants Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran. dr_rohib@yahoo.com201305102013101520131009BACKGROUND: The impact of different nutritional regimens on long-term prognosis and outcome in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) has been questioned. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the effects of different nutritional components of Mediterranean regimen on long-term cardiovascular events in diabetic patients with CAD in the Iranian population. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, we recruited 233 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and with at least 6 months of documented CAD. Nutritional assessment was obtained by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the diet score was calculated on the basis of the Mediterranean diet quality index (Med-DQI). For Assessing long-term CAD prognosis, the patients were followed by telephone for one year. The study endpoint was long-term major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE). RESULTS: Death was observed in 19 patients (8.2%) during the one-year follow-up. Two patients (0.9%) suffered non-fatal myocardial infarction and 14 (6.0%) needed revascularization within 1 year after discharge from hospital. Overall MACCE within one year in the study population was 12.4%. There were significant differences between number of deaths and dietary scores of saturated fatty acid, cholesterol, meats, fish, and fruit and vegetables (P < 0.05). Moreover, significant differences were found between MACCE rate and dietary scores of saturated fatty acid, cholesterol, and fruit and vegetables (P < 0.05). Using multivariate logistic regression models, Mediterranean dietary regimen could effectively predict long-term death as well as MACCE adjusted for gender and age variables. CONCLUSION: Mediterranean dietary regimens, including low level of cholesterol and saturated fatty acid, can effectively improve long-term outcome including death and MACCE in diabetic patients with CAD.   Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Coronary Artery Disease, Nutrition 
ARYA Atheroscler9620131115Amiodarone versus lidocaine for the prevention of reperfusion ventricular fibrillation: A randomized clinical trial343349ENAlirezaAlizadeh-GhavidelSalaheddinNabaviMajidHaghjooZiaToutonchiYaldaMirmesdaghHodaJavadikasgariResearch Fellow, Heart Valve Disease Research Center AND Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Hoda.Javadi.K@gmail.com201301082013080620130722BACKGROUND: Reperfusion ventricular fibrillation after aortic cross clamp is one of the important complications of open cardiac surgery and its prevention could reduce myocardial injuries. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of single dose of amiodarone or lidocaine by the way of pump circuit three minutes before aortic cross clamp release and compare the results with normal saline as placebo in a randomized double blinded controlled trial. METHODS: One hundred fifty patients scheduled for first time elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomly assigned to receive either single dose of amiodarone (150 mg), lidocaine (100 mg), or normal saline (5 ml) three minutes before aortic cross clamp release. The incidence of ventricular fibrillation and the need for reuse of drug were compared between these groups by chi-square, Student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney test, and One-way ANOVA. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The incidence of ventricular fibrillation is higher in the placebo group (15.9%) compare to lidocaine (11.8%) and amiodarone (8.9%) groups; however, there was no statistical difference among the three groups (P = 0.41). Moreover, the reuse of amiodarone (22.7%) was statistically higher (P < 0.05) than lidocaine (5.9%). CONCLUSION: This study showed no difference among lidocaine, amiodarone, and placebo in preventing ventricular fibrillation after aortic cross clamp release.   Keywords: Amiodarone, Lidocaine, Ischemia Reperfusion Injury, Ventricular Fibrilation, Randomized Controlled Trial 
ARYA Atheroscler9620131115Designing and standardizing a questionnaire for evaluating knowledge, attitude, and practice of Iranian adults with cardiovascular diseases about oral health350356ENAmir AlirezaRasouli-GhahroudiAmir RezaRoknAfshinKhorsandHasanAghajaniAfshinAminiAhmad RezaShamshiriHamedRahimiAliKabirPhD Candidate, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences AND Center for Educational Research in Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. aikabir@yahoo.com201305162013091620130805BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death in Iran. Moreover, periodontal diseases are very common in our country. In this study, we have designed a standardized questionnaire for evaluating knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of Iranian adult patients with cardiovascular diseases about oral health. METHODS: For designing and standardizing a self-administered questionnaire, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study on 51 cases with periodontal complaints. A dentist carried out the physical examination to determine oral health indicators. Twelve experts and ten lay people of the target population answered questions about validity. Cronbach’s alpha, factor analysis, and Pearson correlation coefficients were used in the analysis. RESULTS: The cases of this pilot study were middle aged, with moderate financial and health status, but low oral health and educational level. Debris score was correlated with all other physical exam findings except decay, missing, and filled (DMF). Reliability was 0.826 according to Cronbach’s alpha score. Face validity was higher than 80%. Content validities of the whole of the questionnaire were 85.98% for clarity, 78.05% for relevancy, 85.16% for simplicity, and 82.32% for consistency of each question with the question set. Factor analysis showed that 15 components explain 74% of the total variance. CONCLUSION: This questionnaire is culturally adjusted and appropriate for our community, valid and reliable, and sufficiently estimates the variance of the oral health status. It can be used as a standard tool in further studies in adult population of the Iranian middle aged patients with low level of education and moderate socioeconomic status.   Keywords: Questionnaires, Reproducibility of Results, Validation Studies, Validity, Reliability, Oral Health, Periodontal Diseases 
ARYA Atheroscler9620131124Impacts of fresh lime juice and peel on atherosclerosis progression in an animal model357362ENMaryamBoshtamIsfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. maryamboshtam@gmail.comSedighehAsgaryJamalMoshtaghianGholamaliNaderiNargesJafari-Dinani201306032013102820130910BACKGROUND: The main protective role of antioxidants in the progression of atherosclerosis has been shown in some studies. Therefore, this project evaluated the effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) juice and peel on antioxidant activity and atherosclerosis progression in rabbits receiving a hypercholesterolemic diet. METHODS: Forty white New Zealand male rabbits were randomly allocated to four groups. All groups were on hypercholesterolemic diet for two months. While the first group was considered as the hypercholesterolemic control, groups 2 and 3 (intervention groups) received 5 ml/day lime juice and 1 g/day dried lime peel powder, respectively. Group 4 was fed a normal diet (normal control). Before and after the study, weight was measured and a fasting blood specimen was taken from the rabbits. Serum lipids analyses and antioxidant activity evaluations were then performed. The rabbits’ aorta and coronary arteries were separated and the presence of fatty streaks was studied. RESULTS: Comparing to the hypercholesterolemic control group (-25.2 ± 7.0), only the plasma total antioxidant capacity change was significantly more in rabbits supplemented with lime juice (16.3 ± 14.7) and peel (8.6 ± 7.1) (P = 0.008). The presence of fatty streaks in coronary arteries and aorta of the intervention groups [juice (0.2 ± 0.01); peel (0.0 ± 0.00)] was significantly decreased compared to the hypercholesterolemic control group (1.2 ± 0.4) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, Citrus aurantifolia peel and juice increase plasma antioxidant capacity in rabbits, and can thus prevent or decelerate the process of atherogenesis. However, lime peel is more effective than lime juice.   Keywords: Animal, Atherosclerosis, Atherogenic Diet, Fatty Streak, Intervention, Lime   
ARYA Atheroscler9620131126Comparison of effects of soft margarine, blended, ghee, and unhydrogenated oil with hydrogenated oil on serum lipids: A randomized clinical trail363371ENNoushinMohammadifardIsfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Trans fatty acids (TFAs) are known as the most harmful type of dietary fats. Therefore, this study was done to compare the effects of some different oils including unhydrogenated, blended, ghee, and soft magazine with hydrogenated oil on serum lipid profile of healthy adults. METHODS: This study was a randomized clinical trial conducted on 206 healthy participants of 20 to 60 years of age. Subjects were randomly divided into 5 groups and each of them was treated with a diet containing unhydrogenated oil, ghee, blended oil, soft margarine, or hydrogenated oil for 40 days. Fasting serum lipids were measured before and after the study. RESULTS: Compared to hydrogenated oil, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) had a significant reduction in all groups, LDL-C declined in unhydrogenated oil and soft margarine groups, and apolipoprotein (Apo) B only in unhydrogenated oil group (all P < 0.05). However, there was a significant enhancement in ApoA of ghee oil (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Consuming unhydrogenated oil, ghee, soft margarine, and blended oil had some beneficial effects on serum lipids.   Keywords: Clinical Trial, Dietary Fat, Commercial Oil, Lipid 
ARYA Atheroscler9620131124Pivotal role of microRNA-33 in metabolic syndrome: A systematic review372376ENMojganGharipourMasoumehSadeghiAssociate Professor, Cardiac Rehabilitation Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. syndrome (MetS) is a major public health concerns and increase in the incidence of MetS caused a rise in the rates of global morbidity, and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Lifestyle modification, a healthy diet, and pharmacological treatment and bariatric surgery are recommended in order to control this syndrome. Molecular mechanisms of metabolic disorders are essential in order to develop novel, valid therapeutic strategies. MicroRNA-33 plays imperative regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes including collaboration with sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) to maintain cholesterol homeostasis, high-density lipoprotein formation, fatty acid oxidation, and insulin signaling. Investigation of these molecules and their genetic targets may potentially identify new pathways involved in complex metabolic disease processes, improve our understanding of metabolic disorders, and influence future approaches to the treatment of obesity. This article reviews the role of miRNA-33 in metabolic syndrome, and highlights the potential of using miRNA-33 as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for this syndrome.   Keywords: MicroRNA-33, Insulin Resistance Syndrome X, Regulatory Role 
ARYA Atheroscler9620131115Selection of best door-to-cardiac regeneration (D2CR) time377379ENMohaddesehBehjatiIsfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. spite of great progress in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) events in reperfusion era, patients are still at risk for development of heart failure due to negative remodeling. Thus, the importance of regenerative therapies in parallel with reperfusion strategies is fundamental. A key feature in this case is obtaining the most appropriate door-to-cardiac regeneration (D2CR) time. This golden time in which fresh stem cells can invade scare-prone tissue could be defined as door-to-cardiac stem cell (D2CSC) plus door-to-cardiac regeneration (D2CR) time. Application of stem cells in this golden time allows comprehensive regeneration and reconstruction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to plan the outlines of simultaneous application of cellular and vascular reconstruction strategies.   Keywords: Cardiac Regeneration, Stem Cell, Golden Time 


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