Prevalence of hypertension and related risk factors in central Iran: Results from Yazd Health Study

Masoud Mirzaei, Mohsen Mirzaei, Somaye Gholami, Hossein Abolhosseini



BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hypertension (HTN) varies across countries due to differences in its related risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HTN and related risk factors among adults.

METHODS: This study was conducted on the data from the recruitment phase of Yazd Health Study. Using multi-stage random cluster sampling, 10000 adults of 20-69 years were selected. Self-reported HTN (diagnosed by a physician) was recorded in a home visit. Blood pressure (BP) was measured using a standard protocol and categorized based on the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and ‎Treatment of High Blood Pressure ‎(JNC-7) classification. T-test was used to examine the gender differences. Qualitative variables were presented as number (frequency). Chi-square test and bivariate logistic regression were carried out to determine the association between risk factors.

RESULTS: The response rate was 95% (n = 9975). The prevalence of positive history of HTN was 18.5%. The mean systolic and diastolic BP was 126.5 ± 18.4 and 80.2 ± 12.5 mmHg, respectively. The prevalence of HTN was 36.0% (95%CI: 35.1–36.9). Its prevalence reduced by high-education, physical activity, lower BMI, and lack of history of diabetes mellitus ‎(DM) (P < 0.0001). HTN is less common in smokers (P < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis showed that HTN was higher among men (OR: 1.83; 95%CI: 1.64-2.03), the elderly (OR: 5.15; 95%CI: 4.20-6.31), low-educated (OR: 1.40; 95%CI: 1.17-1.67), and diabetics (OR: 1.20; 95%CI: 1.05-1.38). The prevalence of HTN was 2 times higher in obeses. HTN did not have a significant relationship with inactivity, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia.

CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HTN was high. By identifying modifiable risk factors, health policymakers can prioritize intervention programs. It is necessary to inform younger adult groups how these factors can be managed through a healthy lifestyle and nutritional habits.


Hypertension; Prevalence; Adults; Risk Factors; Iran

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