Fall 2005


Nooshin Mohammadifard, Nasrin Omidvar, Anahita Hoshiar Rad, Maryam Maghroon, Firoozeh Sajjadi


INTRODUCTION: Adequate intake of fruits and vegetables (at least five servings a day) is
recommended as a nutritional behavior of great importance in prevention of chronic
diseases. This study aimed to compare the intake of fruits and vegetables in adult males
and females of Isfahan and to assess its association with personal and demographic factors,
as well as seasons.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 123 healthy adults (64 males
and 59 females) during the cold season (fall and winter) and warm seasons (spring and
summer). Study samples were aged 30 to 60 years and were residents of Isfahan. Fruit and
vegetable consumption was assessed using a 110-item semi-quantitative food frequency
questionnaire on fruits and vegetables. Validity of the questionnaire was evaluated in a pilot
study through comparison with two 24-hour food recalls and four food diaries. Mean
consumption of fruits and vegetables was analyzed in males and females, as well as in age
and educational groups. The relationship between the amount of fruit and vegetable
consumption and different factors including age, sex, level of education and occupation was
determined through stepwise linear regression.
RESULTS: Mean fruit consumption in men and women in cold seasons was 275.3±100.8
and 234.5±116.5 grams per day, respectively (P<0.05), and in warm seasons 217.6±95.5
and 185.3±77.1 grams per day, respectively (P<0.05). Vegetable consumption in men and
women in cold seasons was 291.5±93.5 and 245.7±76.6 grams per day, respectively
(P<0.05) and in warm season 197±76.3 and 166.4±60.7 grams per day, respectively
(P<0.05). The proportion of men who consumed more than 5 servings of fruits and
vegetables in a day was significantly greater than women (P<0.05). Fruit and vegetable
intake in men educated below junior school and high school was significantly higher than in
their female counterparts (P<0.05). Fruit and vegetable intake in single men was
significantly lower than in their female counterparts (P<0.05).
DISCUSSION: The findings show the effectiveness of social and cultural factors on the
pattern of fruit and vegetable intake.

Keywords • Fruits • Vegetables • Gender • Adults • Isfahan • Food frequency questionnaire

Full Text:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.