Vol 15, No 6 (2019):288-291

Youngest documented rheumatic mitral stenosis with regurgitation in a 28-month-old girl

Santosh Kumar Sinha, Mohammad Asif, Vikas Mishra, Mahmodulla Razi, Vinay Krishna

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/arya.v15i6.1725


BACKGROUND: Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are the leading causes of acquired diseases in children and young adults in developing countries carrying considerable morbidity and mortality.Rheumatic fever (RF) commonly affects children between 5-15 years old and is rarely seen in < 5 years old. Mitral stenosis (MS) is the most common sequela, as it bears maximum onslaught. In India, few patients follow an unusually rapid course in developing severe MS because of its fulminant nature following attack of ARF.

CASE REPORT: Our patient was a 28-month-old girl who had developed severe MS, mitral regurgitation (MR), and pulmonary hypertension (PH) as the sequelae of ARF which she had suffered at the age of 18 months old.

CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest reported case of rheumatic MS following ARF after extensive search in the literature. This case highlights the fact that very young population is not immune to ARF contrary to prior belief and therefore, more stringent preventive measures need to be implemented for it and possibility of ARF should be kept in mind while evaluating carditis in a child.


Acute Rheumatic Fever; Mitral Stenosis; Mitral Regurgitation; Pulmonary Hypertension

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