Vol 15, No 5 (2019):233-240

Interleukin 10, lipid profile, vitamin D, selenium, metabolic syndrome, and serum antioxidant capacity in elderly people with and without cardiovascular disease: Amirkola health and ageing project cohort-based study

Hamid Reza Nematollahi, Reza Hosseini, Ali Bijani, Haleh Akhavan-Niaki, Hadi Parsian, Mahdi Pouramir, Mehrdad Saravi, Mojgan Bagherzadeh, Abbas Mosapour, Massud Saleh-Moghaddam, Majid Rajabian, Monireh Golpour, Amrollah Mostafazadeh

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/arya.v15i5.1623


BACKGROUND: The age-related autoinflammation-mediated atherosclerosis is associated with some immunological, nutritional, and metabolic parameters and redox status. Here, we evaluated the association of circulatory interleukin 10 (IL-10) levels with lipid profile, some nutrients, and total anti-oxidant capacity in elderly people who presented cardiovascular disease (CVD) with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in healthy subjects.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 258 sera prepared from elderly people (144 healthy and 114 patient subjects) who participated in a community-based study, the Amirkola Health and Ageing Project (AHAP), were analyzed for IL-10, lipid profile, vitamin D, selenium (Se), antioxidant capacity, and MetS.

RESULTS: Compared to patients, the healthy subjects exhibited higher levels of circulatory IL-10 among individuals with detectable serum IL-10 (P = 0.036). However, this difference was not observed when total subjects from both groups were compared, since more than 90% of those people were IL-10-negative. Se, vitamin D, and antioxidant levels were similar in both groups. There was a negative association between IL-10 and body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.050) and an equivocal association with vitamin D levels, whereas the association between IL-10 and other indicated variables was not significant. Significant association was observed between MetS and CVD prevalence (P < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between Se and total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) (P < 0.010) in healthy subjects and with TC in patients (P < 0.050).

CONCLUSION: A major proportion of elderly people were serum IL-10-negative, whereas independently to IL-10, MetS was most common in patients with CVD. Weight loss may have the potential to increase IL-10 levels in the elderly.


Interleukin 10; Lipids; Cardiovascular Diseases; Antioxidants; Metabolic Syndrome; Elderly

Full Text:



World Health Organization. The top 10 causes of death [Online]. [cited 2018]; Available from: URL: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death

Sniderman AD, Thanassoulis G, Williams K, Pencina M. Risk of premature cardiovascular disease vs the number of premature cardiovascular events. JAMA Cardiol 2016; 1(4): 492-4.

Yu P, Xiong T, Tenedero CB, Lebeau P, Ni R, MacDonald ME, et al. Rosuvastatin reduces aortic sinus and coronary artery atherosclerosis in SR-B1 (Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1)/ApoE (Apolipoprotein E) double knockout mice independently of plasma cholesterol lowering. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2018; 38(1): 26-39.

Bessueille L, Magne D. Inflammation: A culprit for vascular calcification in atherosclerosis and diabetes. Cell Mol Life Sci 2015; 72(13): 2475-89.

Fava C, Montagnana M. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease which lacks a common anti-inflammatory therapy: How human genetics can help to this issue. A Narrative Review. Front Pharmacol 2018; 9: 55.

Sylvester CB, Abe JI, Patel ZS, Grande-Allen KJ. Radiation-induced cardiovascular disease: Mechanisms and importance of linear energy transfer. Front Cardiovasc Med 2018; 5: 5.

Maffia P, Cirino G. Targeting inflammation to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Br J Pharmacol 2017; 174(22): 3895-7.

Miller YI, Shyy JY. Context-dependent role of oxidized lipids and lipoproteins in inflammation. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2017; 28(2): 143-52.

Lin J, Li M, Wang Z, He S, Ma X, Li D. The role of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in macrophage-derived foam-cell formation. J Lipid Res 2010; 51(5): 1208-17.

Welsh P, Murray HM, Ford I, Trompet S, de Craen AJ, Jukema JW, et al. Circulating interleukin-10 and risk of cardiovascular events: A prospective study in the elderly at risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2011; 31(10): 2338-44.

Kinzenbaw DA, Chu Y, Pena Silva RA, Didion SP, Faraci FM. Interleukin-10 protects against aging-induced endothelial dysfunction. Physiol Rep 2013; 1(6): e00149.

Mostafazadeh A, Saravi M, Niaki HA, Drabbels J, Gholipour HM, Minagar M, et al. HLA-DRBeta1, circulating Th1/Th2 cytokines and immunological homunculus in coronary atherosclerosis. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2011; 10(1): 11-9.

Cervantes Gracia K, Llanas-Cornejo D, Husi H. CVD and Oxidative Stress. J Clin Med 2017; 6(2).

Limberaki E, Eleftheriou P, Vagdatli E, Kostoglou V, Petrou C. Serum antioxidant status among young, middle-aged and elderly people before and after antioxidant rich diet. Hippokratia 2012; 16(2): 118-23.

Zachara BA. Selenium and selenium-dependent antioxidants in chronic kidney disease. Adv Clin Chem 2015; 68: 131-51.

Huang Z, Rose AH, Hoffmann PR. The role of selenium in inflammation and immunity: From molecular mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities. Antioxid Redox Signal 2012; 16(7): 705-43.

Suthar OP, Mathur S, Gupta V, Agarwal H, Mathur A, Singh P, et al. Study of correlation of serum vitamin d levels with arterial stiffness and cardiovascular morbidity in elderly individuals of western Rajasthan. J Assoc Physicians India 2018; 66(3): 18-21.

Dhingra R, Gona P, Nam BH, D'Agostino RB Sr, Wilson PW, Benjamin EJ, et al. C-reactive protein, inflammatory conditions, and cardiovascular disease risk. Am J Med 2007; 120(12): 1054-62.

El-Fakhri N, McDevitt H, Shaikh MG, Halsey C, Ahmed SF. Vitamin D and its effects on glucose homeostasis, cardiovascular function and immune function. Horm Res Paediatr 2014; 81(6): 363-78.

van Exel E, Gussekloo J, de Craen AJ, Frolich M, Bootsma-Van Der Wiel A, Westendorp RG. Low production capacity of interleukin-10 associates with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: The Leiden 85-Plus Study. Diabetes 2002; 51(4): 1088-92.

Esposito K, Pontillo A, Giugliano F, Giugliano G, Marfella R, Nicoletti G, et al. Association of low interleukin-10 levels with the metabolic syndrome in obese women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88(3): 1055-8.

Hosseini SR, Cumming RG, Kheirkhah F, Nooreddini H, Baiani M, Mikaniki E, et al. Cohort profile: The Amirkola Health and Ageing Project (AHAP). Int J Epidemiol 2014; 43(5): 1393-400.

Azizi F, Hadaegh F, Khalili D, Esteghamati A, Hosseinpanah F, Delavari A, et al. Appropriate definition of metabolic syndrome among Iranian adults: Report of the Iranian National Committee of Obesity. Arch Iran Med 2010; 13(5): 426-8.

Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power": The FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 1996; 239(1): 70-6.

Xu RX, Guo YL, Li XL, Li S, Li JJ. Impact of short-term low-dose atorvastatin on low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein subfraction phenotype. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2014; 41(7): 475-81.

Huet O, Laemmel E, Fu Y, Dupic L, Aprico A, Andrews KL, et al. Interleukin 10 antioxidant effect decreases leukocytes/endothelial interaction induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha. Shock 2013; 39(1): 83-8.

Virtamo J, Valkeila E, Alfthan G, Punsar S, Huttunen JK, Karvonen MJ. Serum selenium and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 122(2): 276-82.

Flores-Mateo G, Navas-Acien A, Pastor-Barriuso R, Guallar E. Selenium and coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 84(4): 762-73.

Sabino P, Stranges S, Strazzullo P. Does selenium matter in cardiometabolic disorders? A short review of the evidence. J Endocrinol Invest 2013; 36(10 Suppl): 21-7.

Murata Y, Shimamura T, Hamuro J. The polarization of T(h)1/T(h)2 balance is dependent on the intracellular thiol redox status of macrophages due to the distinctive cytokine production. Int Immunol 2002; 14(2): 201-12.

Peterson JD, Herzenberg LA, Vasquez K, Waltenbaugh C. Glutathione levels in antigen-presenting cells modulate Th1 versus Th2 response patterns. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998; 95(6): 3071-6.

Kidd P. Th1/Th2 balance: The hypothesis, its limitations, and implications for health and disease. Altern Med Rev 2003; 8(3): 223-46.

Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Role of cytokines in inducing hyperlipidemia. Diabetes 1992; 41 Suppl 2: 97-101.

Dimeloe S, Rice LV, Chen H, Cheadle C, Raynes J, Pfeffer P, et al. Vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) induces alpha-1-antitrypsin synthesis by CD4(+) T cells, which is required for 1,25(OH)2D3-driven IL-10. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2019; 189: 1-9.

Kiani K, Roohafza H, Gharipour M, Dianatkhah M, Talaei M, Oveisgharan S, et al. The association between the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and cardiovascular events in individuals with and without metabolic syndrome. ARYA Atheroscler 2018; 14(6): 254-9.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.